Frequently asked questions

Does ICEMAN apply to observational studies?

The items included in ICEMAN do apply in principle to claims of effect modificatio made in observational studies, or meta-analyses of observational studies, but additional considerations may be needed. The variability of study designs and the risk of counfounding for main effects introduces additional complexity and uncertainty. Applying ICEMAN to observational studies may therefore result in over-optimistic credibility judgments.